Originally, two codecs, named after the types of data channel they were allocated, were used, called Half Rate 6. The BTS Gsm architecture the defining element for each cell.
The BTS communicates with the mobiles and the interface between the two is known as the Um interface with its associated protocols.
There is one HLR per network, although it may be distributed across various sub-centres to for operational reasons. This base transceiver station is based on a radio and an antenna. It is a node responsible for receiving data, voice or fax.
Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those Gsm architecture. They also noted that some carriers do not encrypt the data i.
It has considered the user authentication using a pre-shared key and challenge-responseand over-the-air encryption. There were four main elements to the overall GSM architecture and these could often be further split. The 2G GSM network architecture, although now superseded gives an excellent introduction into some of the basic capabilities required to set up a mobile phone network and how all the entities operate together.
Basically this OSS unit is responsible to monitor the whole process and provides support for the centralization, covers the local and regional operations and retains the GSM network in its running condition.
It Gsm architecture accessed by the network during registration to check whether the equipment has been reported as stolen. GSM uses several cryptographic algorithms for security. The EIR is another database that keeps the information about the identity of mobile equipment such the International mobile Equipment Identity IMEI that reveals the details about the manufacturer, country of production, and device type.
The hardware itself contains the main elements of Gsm architecture mobile phone including the display, case, battery, and the electronics used to generate the signal, and process the data receiver and to be transmitted. Each mobile equipment has a number known as the International Mobile Equipment Identity.
The base transceiver station BTS manages the broadcasting line to the mobile station. There is one HLR per network, although it may be distributed across various sub-centres to for operational reasons. Despite the developments of the newer systems, the basic GSM system architecture has been maintained, and the network elements described below perform the same functions as they did when the original GSM system was launched in the early s.
These eight radio timeslots or burst periods are grouped into a TDMA frame. The hardware itself contains the main elements of the mobile phone including the display, case, battery, and the electronics used to generate the signal, and process the data receiver and to be transmitted. There are five different cell sizes in a GSM network— macromicropicofemtoand umbrella cells.
It manages the radio resources and controls items such as handover within the group of BTSs, allocates channels and the like. The two gateways handle messages directed in different directions. SIM lock Sometimes mobile network operators restrict handsets that they sell for use with their own network.
It must be noted that as the number of BS increases with the scaling of the subscriber population some of the maintenance tasks are transferred to the BTS, allowing savings in the cost of ownership of the system. The OSS Operational Support Systems supports operation and maintenance of the system and allows engineers to monitor, diagnose, and troubleshoot every aspect of the GSM network.
The BTS communicates with the mobiles and the interface between the two is known as the Um interface with its associated protocols. It manages the radio resources and controls items such as handover within the group of BTSs, allocates channels and the like.
It is used for authentication and for ciphering on the radio channel. Finally, with the development of UMTSEFR was refactored into a variable-rate codec called AMR-Narrowbandwhich is high quality and robust against interference when used on full-rate channels, or less robust but still relatively high quality when used in good radio conditions on half-rate channel.Given below is a simple pictorial view of the GSM architecture.
The additional components of the GSM architecture comprise of databases and messaging systems functions: Home Location Register (HLR) Visitor Location Register (VLR) Equipment Identity Register (EIR) Authentication Center (AuC). The GSM contains most of the necessary capabilities to support packet transmission over GSM.
The critical part in the GPRS network is the mobile to GSN (MS-SGSN) link which includes the MS-BTS, BTS-BSC, BSC-SGSN, and the SGSN-GGSN calgaryrefugeehealth.com 1 shows block diagram of GSM architecture. GSM Architecture. A GSM network consists of the following components: A Mobile Station: It is the mobile phone which consists of the transceiver, the display and the processor and is controlled by a SIM card operating over the network.
Global system for mobile communication abbreviated as “GSM” is widely used because of its vast coverage. The GSM is the cellular norm of second developed generation in order to adapt to the delivery of vocal services and data that use the digital modulation.
GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as tablets.
The GSM network architecture is now well established and with the other later cellular systems now established and other new ones being deployed, the basic GSM network architecture has been updated to interface to the network elements required by .Download