If we think of ourselves as completely causally determined, and not as uncaused causes ourselves, then any attempt to conceive of a rule that prescribes the means by which some end can be achieved is pointless.
But how are my noumenal and phenomenal selves related, and why is punishment inflicted on phenomenal selves? In other words, we should have a firm commitment not to perform an action if it is morally forbidden and to perform an action if it is morally required.
All other candidates for an intrinsic good have problems, Kant argues. We are both sensible and intellectual, as was pointed out in the discussion of the first Critique. But sensibility cannot by its nature provide the intuitions that would make knowledge of the highest principles and of things as they are in themselves possible.
The absolutely necessary Being that is the ground of all possibility must be one, simple, immutable, eternal, the highest reality, and a spirit, he argues. But Kant has shown that the acceptable conception of the moral law cannot be merely hypothetical.
For instance, we do not find causation in nature so much as we cannot not find causation in nature. Likewise, while actions, feelings or desires may be the focus of other moral views, for Kant practical irrationality, both moral and prudential, focuses mainly on our willing.
All changes occur according to the law of the connection of cause and effect. On the other hand, self-consciousness would also be impossible if I represented multiple objective worlds, even if I could relate all of my representations to some objective world or other.
As an empirical object, Kant argues, it is indefinitely constructable for our minds.
And that mind must be the same as the mind that employs the table of categories, that contributes empirical concepts to judgment, and that synthesizes the whole into knowledge of a unified, empirical world. There he calls his an age of developing enlightenment, though not yet a fully enlightened age.
Kant's Analytic of Principles We have seen the progressive stages of Kant's analysis of the faculties of the mind which reveals the transcendental structuring of experience performed by these faculties. One strategy favored recently has been to turn back to the arguments of Groundwork II for help.
The metaphysical facts about the ultimate nature of things in themselves must remain a mystery to us because of the spatiotemporal constraints on sensibility. A rational will that is merely bound by universal laws could act accordingly from natural and non-moral motives, such as self-interest.
We do not have the capacity to aim to act on an immoral maxim because the will is identified with practical reason, so when we will to perform an immoral act, we implicitly but mistakenly take our underlying policy to be required by reason.
Hence, while in the Groundwork Kant relies on a dubious argument for our autonomy to establish that we are bound by the moral law, in the second Critique, he argues from the bold assertion of our being bound by the moral law to our autonomy.
All intended effects "could be brought about through other causes and would not require the will of a rational being, while the highest and unconditional good can be found only in such a will.
We are motivated by the mere conformity of our will to law as such. We do not have the capacity to aim to act on an immoral maxim because the will is identified with practical reason, so when we will to perform an immoral act, we implicitly but mistakenly take our underlying policy to be required by reason.
The domain of the Antithesis is the spatiotemporal world. Yet the original inspiration for the Enlightenment was the new physics, which was mechanistic. There is no implicit restriction or qualification to the effect that a commitment to give moral considerations decisive weight is worth honoring, but only under such and such circumstances.
This is the principle which motivates a good will, and which Kant holds to be the fundamental principle of all of morality. This change in method represents what Kant calls a Copernican revolution in philosophy.
Metaphysical principles of this sort are always sought out and established by a priori methods. When we reflect on alternative courses of action, means-to-ends, things like buildings, rocks, and trees, deserve no special status in our deliberations about what goals we should have and what means we use to achieve them.
It would undoubtedly be a world more primitive than our own, but pursuing such a policy is still conceivable in it. Every judgment that the understanding can make must fall under the table of categories.
In short, Kant has a formal conception of self-consciousness rather than a material one.Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative is meant to be a universal principle, that is, a principle for all persons at all time periods in all societies. Chapter Two: Immanuel Kant¶s Theory of Knowledge CHAPTER TWO IMMANUEL KANT¶S THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE 2.
1 Introduction Immanuel Kant revolutionized philosophy.
What prompted this revolution in Kant¶s mind was his profound concern over a problem that the philosophy of his day could not deal with successfully or adequately.4/4(5). Immanuel Kant, New Exposition of the First Principles of Metaphysical Knowledge, trans. F. E. England (called “Exposition”), in England (below).
Immanuel Kant, On the Form and Principles of the Sensible and Intelligible World (Inaugural Dissertation), trans. G. B. Kerford and D. E. Walford, in Writings. Immanuel Kant (–) argued that the supreme principle of morality is a standard of rationality that he dubbed the “Categorical Imperative” (CI).
Our knowledge and understanding of the empirical world, Kant argued, can only arise within the limits of our perceptual and cognitive powers. Kants gesammelte Schriften, Berlin.
Immanuel Kant: Metaphysics Immanuel Kant () is one of the most influential philosophers in the history of Western philosophy. His contributions to metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, and aesthetics have had a profound impact on almost every philosophical movement that followed him.
Description and explanation of the major themes of Immanuel Kant (–). This accessible literary criticism is perfect for anyone faced with Immanuel Kant (–) essays, papers, tests, exams, or for anyone who needs to create a Immanuel Kant (–) lesson plan.Download