The king was the ultimate authority in all areas of government, having full power to hire and dismiss and execute any other government official.
However, he also believed in the crucial role of education and trusted that a good moral education could make sages of all men. Such a inexorable mentality on 2 human nature likely derives from the quavering and violent clip period in which he developed these doctrines.
One of the functions of ritual was to try to put limits on the power of the ruler and emphasize his obligation to the people. Confucian Moral Self Cultivation. Virtue, Nature, and Moral Agency in the Xunzi. From a twenty-first-century perspective, this revival of interest in Xunzi is not hard to explain: Interestingly, though Xunzi has this rational view of Nature, which extends to spirits and gods as well, he never suggests eliminating religious rituals that are directed toward them, such as sacrifices and divination.
Leading by illustration allows people to follow the Way and to be in touch with their true human nature. This is probably the greatest controversy in Xunzi studies today.
Is the Way Discovered or Constructed? The moral power of the true king is so great that he can unify the whole country without a single battle, since the people will come to him of their own accord to live under his beneficent rule.
The ancient Chinese believed that music was the most direct and effective way of influencing the emotions. Because we are not sages, we are advised to follow the rituals in order to attain this degree of understanding, but, fundamentally, the path to morality is open to anyone who sees and thinks Xunzi 8.
When a ruler governs a state well, there are bound to be good results; when a ruler governs a state badly, there are bound to be bad results. His conclusion discloses that his main purpose is not a proper taxonomy of falsidical paradoxes for this term, see Quine He gives several illustrations of what life is like in the state of nature, without any education on ritual and morality.
Of prime importance in this process are the li ceremonies and ritual practices, rules of social behaviour, traditional mores and music which Xunzi, like Plato, regarded as having a profound moral significance.
When one who is a king determines names, if names are fixed and realities distinguished, if the Way is practiced and his intentions communicated, then he may cautiously lead the people and unify them by this means.
It is conceivable though Xunzi is very skeptical about anyone actually being able to do itbut it is much more difficult and time-consuming, when all one has to do is study what has already been created. Cambridge, MA, and London: He also rejected traditional concepts that heaven rewarded virtuous rulers and punished wicked ones; instead he postulated a mechanical universe that operated independent of the doings of humans.
The only proper object of study is the Way of the sages; anything else is at best useless and at worst detrimental to the Way. A teacher who does not live up to the Way of the sages in his own life is no teacher at all. Thus the Former Kings restrained them and established for them ritual and morality in order to divide them [into classes].
According to Xunzi, this is how the sage kings of the past were able to unify the country even though they began as rulers of small states.Introduction Xunzi (Xun Qing, or Xun Kuang: c.
c. BCE) lived at the very end of the Zhou dynasty. Like Mencius, he was an advocate and interpreter of the teachings of Confucius.
Hence, one cannot claim that Mengzi and Xunzi completely disagree with each other solely by the fact that they consider human nature from different points of view.
In addition to the intrinsic ambiguity of human nature, Mengzi and Xunzi have utterly distinct emphasis on their theory about human nature. Xunzi was Mencius’s opponent and polemicizing with him, put forward opposing views on human nature. Moreover, in contrast to Mencius, he puts forward a thesis about a man’s evil nature and all his abilities and good qualities are a result of upbringing.
Xunzi stanchly argues that “Human nature is evil” () and through essays claims that human nature’s merely “goodness derives from the witting activity” (). The two philosophers both use many metaphors to explicate their ain reading of human nature in different ways.
Mencius and Xunzi both follow Confucian philosophy yet have a dramatically different understanding of human nature. Additionally, the two philosophers make their arguments in strikingly different literary methods.
Mencius believes that the “goodness of human nature is like the downward course of. Xunzi was Mencius’s opponent and polemicizing with him, put forward opposing views on human nature.
Moreover, in contrast to Mencius, he puts forward a thesis about a man’s evil nature and all his abilities and good qualities are a result of upbringing.Download